All images are cited as they used. Mouse-over to view the alternative text which gives attribution and source information. Descriptions below describe the types of use.
If you have found images, media, or other material on this site and you are the rightful copyright holder of that material, please use the contact page to reach out the creator of this site and if any violation of your rights has occurred, the offending material will removed at the soonest possible opportunity.
Public Domain Images
There is a legacy on the internet of posting images without attribution and throwing up a disclaimer, “All images assumed to be in the public domain unless otherwise specified. Please contact if this is not the case.” That’s not really how the concept of public domain works. Images and media on this site are only described as belonging to the public domain when they meet certain criteria. Images described as, “public domain,” on this site were released explicitly into the public domain by their original creators.
- See the Wikipedia article on Public Domain for a good overview.
Creative Commons License Images
CC-by-SA-2.0 allows for sharing and adaptation as long as the image is attributed appropriately and is shared under the same license with no additional legal restrictions on its use or modification.
CC-by-SA-3.0 allows for sharing and adaptation as long as it is noted that image is altered, the original creator is given attribution, and the image is shared on the same license with no additional legal restrictions on its use or modification.
CC-by-SA-4.0 allows for sharing and adaption as long as the image is attributed appropriately and the image is shared under the same license with no additional legal or technological restrictions on its use or modification.
Other images on the site may be reproductions of historical images from the time period chronicled on this website. None are used from current commercial endeavors nor in contravention of the request of any creators. All used for information purposes in the advancement of scholarship and research into history, psychology, pop culture, and anthropology. Every attempt is made to keep this use within the bounds of fair use.
- See the US Copyright office for information and legal rulings on Fair Use in the United States.
- See the Wikipedia article on Fair Use for overall context and history of international principles.
There is no commercial purpose for this website. It is a personal effort in advance of no business and no professional activity. There are no advertisements associated with this site other than any that WordPress.com might derive. The creator of this site receives no financial or professional benefit or advancement from any material or articles herein.
The site header image is adapted from an aerial photo of Birnbach by Wolkenkratzer (2015), an aerial photographer who has made substantial contributions to the resources of the Wikimedia Foundation. Image is used under a CC-by-SA-4.0 license as described above. No endorsement is implied, and should not be inferred.
The site logo is adapted from the photo, “English: Tree swing By Craigshannoch Cottage” (2007), by traveler-with-a-camera Stanley Howe for the Geograph Project. Image is used under a CC-by-SA-2.0 license as described above. No endorsement is implied, and should not be inferred.
The website’s icon (“favicon”) is adapted from a photo of the Evangelical church in Birnbach, Germany by photographer and frequent Wiki project contributer Reinhardhauke (2011). Image is used under CC-by-SA-3.0 license as described above. No endorsement is implied, and should not be inferred.